Detecting CAD with Vocal Biomarkers

Beyond Verbal, an Israeli company leading the market in voice/emotion analysis software are making headlines thanks to their study with the Mayo Clinic, that shows that voice analysis can indicate the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD).

CAD is responsible for one of the highest cardiovascular mortality rates in developed countries globally, and whilst lower in developing countries, this figure is quickly rising. With this in mind, inexpensive, low-risk  and non-invasive screening methods are a very desirable prospect. Currently, ECG, Exercise Tolerance Testing (ETT), Radionuclide testing and Pharmaceutical Stress Testing are the most common procedures used to screen for CAD, but, aside from ECG, each has contraindications, and/or is fairly invasive. Again, aside really from a simple ECG, each has a middling to significant associated cost attached to it. Technology that could reduce these costs and the potential for unnecessary testing presents a possible alternative to patients being referred to chest pain clinics and such, without a sure fire reason to do so.

Beyond Verbal have already used their vocal analysis software to find audio characteristics associated with Parkinson’s disease and autism, and have now turned their technology to CAD.

The Beyond Verbal/ Mayo Clinic study hypothesised, due to the association coronary atherosclerosis has with other systemic pathologies, that vocal processes and the structures responsible may also be affected.

150 patients, 120 of which presented for angiography of the coronary arteries and 50 healthy, or non-cardiac control patients had their voice recorded prior to the test. Beyond Verbal then used a variety of their analytical software to record three 30 second voice clips from each patient; the first (R1) was a predetermined script, R2 was a description of a positive experience, and R3 was personal like R2, only a negative experience.

The analysed results show a 19-fold increase in the likelihood of CAD in R3, the negative voice clip, irrespective of traditional cardiac risk factors such as age, suggesting there is indeed a link between CAD and voice.

BV hope that future development of this technology can be used to screen patients telephonically.

 

The poster outlining the study can be found here

Beyond Verbal on the web.

The TSP resources relating to CAD can be found here and here.Heart

Fitbit’s Familiarity with Class Action Lawsuits

Fitbit, the wearable fitness tracker, has gone from strength to strength since its launch. The company recorded a record $1.858 billion (!) in revenue at the close of the 2015 financial year, and, due to its affordable price tag, everyone from we regular folk, to soon-to-be ex-P.O.T.U.S. Barak Obama can be seen wearing one. That said, Fitbit are known to court controversy; in 2015, it was suggested that the advertised “sleep-tracker” in the company’s Flex model was inaccurate, and over-logged sleep. This case is still ongoing, but it is important to note that it is not suggesting negligence with regards to health; rather that the product itself was falsely advertised. It remains to be seen how this case will play out, but as if that wasn’t enough, at the beginning of the year, a multiple-plaintiff class action lawsuit was filed, with a study showing evidence that Fitbit’s PurePulse technology was woefully inaccurate during exertion.

fitbit

The study, performed by a team at California State Polytechnic, compared exertional heart rates acquired via the wearable device and from an ECG. After exercising 43 individuals for 65 minutes, it was noted that the various Fitbit models displayed a heart rate that differed by up to 22bpm compared to that on the ECG, and that some didn’t display a heart rate at all.

According to the study’s team, there exists a distinct lack of rigorous, scientific testing in the wearables market (this is further suggested by lawsuits filed against other, similar product developers), but Fitbit have dismissed both this statement and the study itself, citing bias and, perhaps humorously for reasons I shall soon disclose, a lack of scientific methodology. Fitbit have stated that they perform extensive testing during development, and have pointed towards another study which purports to have found PurePulse products to be highly accurate, although it is important to note that this particular study tested a sample size of two (yes… two).

Wearable devices aren’t anything new, but with technological advances, they are no longer being seen as simply fitness trackers and companies are exploring their application in healthcare. As this gains further traction, accuracy will be incredibly important. In fact, one of the plaintiffs in this case, an 82 year old woman, has alleged that her device underestimated her heart rate by such a margin, that were she to have tried to reach her supposed target heart rate, she would have likely done serious damage to her health, so it is already having a potential impact.

The company’s financial growth since the launch of this generation of devices is thought to be largely due to PurePulse, what with it being the most heavily marketed new feature, so Fitbit’s request that the case be dismissed has last week been denied. Judge Susan Illston has decided that the plaintiffs case has sufficient merit, with regard to fraudulent claims about Fitbit’s accuracy, so it will be considered in court. This does not necessarily give an indication as to the outcome, however.

Heart

 

Virtual Reality In The Cath Lab

If you’ve kept abreast of tech news in the last few years, specifically with regard to Google Glass, you’ll probably be aware of two things: 1. it has been met with scepticism and apprehension, and 2. at present it’s largely pointless.

I’ll admit that the second point is subjective, but now, this (my) subjective view is likely to change. A team of cardiologists from Warsaw have used Glass’ virtual reality capabilities to tackle what is referred to as the “final frontier in interventional cardiology” by repairing a total occlusion of the right coronary artery.

An effective visualisation of the coronary arteries is often lacking using normal angiography radiology techniques, but by employing coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), a smartphone app and a headset based on Google Glass, the team at the Institute of Cardiology have successfully restored blood flow in the right coronary artery of a 49y/o male, with two drug- eluting stents.

“This case demonstrates the novel application of wearable devices for display of CTA data sets in the catheterization laboratory that can be used for better planning and guidance of interventional procedures, and provides proof of concept that wearable devices can improve operator comfort and procedure efficiency in interventional cardiology,” says lead investigator Maksymilian P. Opolski, of the Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology at the Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw.

The set up itself projects the three- dimensional CTA images onto the Glass-based head mounted display via a mobile app featuring voice command and a zoom function. The combination allows for digital viewing of the coronary artery, the occlusion and the placement of the guide wire for stent implantation. Thanks to its basis in Google Glass, the device can record video, view images and also allow the practitioner to see the surrounding environment, simultaneously. The possibility for the lenses to be fitted with filters that protect the user from x-rays only cement this technology as one that cardiologists will look to use increasingly, after this first success.

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A. Surgeon using the Glass-based monitor to view CTA images on the lens. B & C. 3D images on lens show trajectory of distal right coronary and occlusion.

 

Virtual Reality might not be having the impact on video games that the industry had hoped, but it would appear to be having a profound impact on healthcare.

 

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Ref: Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Elsevier Health Sciences